Alopecia areata is characterized by the sudden appearance of one or more circular, clearly defined areas without hair. The circles are of different diameters, localized most often on the scalp, and less often on some other part of the body (eyebrows, chin, moustache, arms or legs). At the edges of the affected area, the hair is easily pulled out.
Unlike other medical products recommended in treating alopecia areata which have many unwanted side effects, contraindications and interactions with other medicinal products, MARBO ACTIVATOR is completely safe (even for children), nontoxic, does not react when used with other medicinal products and does not leave hair looking greasy.
The number of affected areas is different, there may be one or more. If they spread peripherally, they may encompass a bigger surface on the scalp. If there are more alopecic areas spreading, they may connect and form bigger alopecic areas of irregular form, or less often, cause total alopecia that can usually be seen on the scalp. Alopecic area enveloping the occipital region is called ophiasis. Ophiasis is considered a bad prognostic sign, since it usually indicates total alopecia tendencies in cases of classic therapy, but therapy with Marbo products solves this problem in 95 % cases.
Although alopecia areata is usually seen on the scalp, it may affect any skin region: eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, moustache, body, arms or legs. Sometimes it also manifests in all areas, which causes universal alopecia (alopecia universalis).
Alopecia areata is usually a benign, chronic hair disease, and its causes have not been definitely proven. Alopecia areata may occur without previous warning, in both sexes, in any age group, usually between 20-40 years of age. Occurrence of clearly limited areas, bald patches, is a characteristic symptom. In 60% patients suffering from alopecia areata, the baldness starts on the scalp, with bald patches of around 0.5 mm – 1 cm in diameter. Hair skin shows no change in colour and hair surrounding the affected area can easily be plucked out. After the occurrence of the first bald patch, usually there are more, which will in time connect and form a larger bald area.
Emotional stress usually precedes the occurrence of new, or worsens the existing symptoms in patients suffering from alopecia areata. Cases in which the occurrence of bald patches is the cause of emotional stress are an exception.
There are different opinions on causes of alopecia areata. Most experts believe that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder, and that genetic factors are crucial in the course and prognosis of the disease. The fact that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder is also supported by the fact that it is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune diseases.
In classic medicine, it is generally known that there is no definite cure, since in different patients, there are different factors affecting the course and prognosis of this disorder. Therefore, Marbo Activator, combined with Marbo shampoo 03, is a unique product guaranteeing hair growth in a very high percentage, and its use is very simple.
Aetiology of alopecia areata is unknown. Although many cases have occurred after strong emotional stress, until now a stress-induced pathogenesis of alopecia areata has not been proven. All cases of alopecia areata have, until ten years ago, been tested in relation to focus (dental focus, chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis), but recently focuses have not been considered that important. Alopecia areata can be detected in several members of a family (not at the same time, of course). There are many opinions on the genetic disposition of alopecia areata, some authors have found a positive family anamnesis in as much as 27 % of all patients suffering from alopecia areata, while other authors deny any family disposition.
In view of the current concept of aetiopathogenesis of alopecia areata, it is believed that autoimmune mechanism of hair follicle components is especially important. More and more facts prove that alopecia areata is a disorder of autoimmune origin. Histopathological results prove the existence of lymphocytic infiltrate surrounding the hair bulbus in areas affected by alopecia areata. By method of direct immunofluorescent technique (DIF), deposits of C3 components are found in hair follicles in most cases. Alopecia areata may, as an exception, be accompanied by a thymus function imbalance, autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimoto or vitiligo. The autoimmune theory is also supported by the anti – HF – antibodies against hair follicle found in patients suffering from alopecia areata in high titre in serum, as well as low values of nucleus membrane glycoprotein CD 44 of sweat glands in areas affected by alopecia areata, that take part in regulating the immunological feedback at the cellular level.
The latest research by monoclonal antibody method has shown the existence of decreased cytokeratin 16 expression CK 16 of hair follicles in areas affected by alopecia areata. Since cytokeratin, which in normal follicles can be found in inner hair layer and dermal papilla, is a marker of epithelial differentiation, this poses the question of epithelial proliferation imbalance during the hair growth cycle in alopecia areata aetiopathogenesis.